Attacks on similar objectives using different methods had similar casualties, which suggested that losses were determined by the German defence, rather than unsatisfactory British methods. A Flandernstellung (Flanders Position) from the Belgian coast, along Passchendaele Ridge and behind the Messines salient, to the defences of Lille, the Wotanstellung (Wotan Position, known as the Drocourt-Quéant Line to the British) from Lille to Sailly, was to be built behind the 1915 battlefields of Loos, Vimy and Arras and the 1916 battlefield of the Somme.  On 24 February Lieutenant-General Hubert Gough defined the boundaries of the three corps making the advance and ordered them to regain contact with the German armies, using strong patrols supported by larger forces moving forward more deliberately behind them. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. , The weather was also unusually severe, with snow in early April, which had less effect on German rearguards, who occupied billets and then blew them up when they retired. , German air operations over the winter concentrated on reconnaissance to look for signs of Anglo-French offensive preparations, which were found at Messines, Arras, Roye, the Aisne and the Champagne region. Where the lay of the land gave the defender a tactical advantage, by which an attacker could be defeated with the minimum of casualties to the defenders, with small-arms fire from dispersed, disguised positions and observed artillery-fire, it was to be fought for by the garrison and local reserves, which would counter-attack to regain any ground lost The changes were codified in a training manual Grundsätze für die Führung in der Abwehrschlacht (The Conduct of the Defensive Battle in Position Warfare) issued on 1 December 1916, which made infantry sections (Gruppen) rather than the battalion the basic tactical unit. On 21 September, after the battle of Flers–Courcelette (15–22 September), Hindenburg ordered that the Somme front would have priority in the west for troops and supplies. Oder–Neisse line: Europe: It is serving as the international border between Germany and Poland post world war II. The attack was postponed for 24 hours but only four of the twelve tanks in the attack were in position on time. The Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Allies had attacked with overwhelming material superiority, using combined-arms tactics, with a unified operational method and achieved a high tempo. Divisions from the Fourth Army had been moved south, to take over former French positions and I Anzac Corps had been transferred to the Fifth Army to compensate for divisions sent north to the Third Army by 6 February, which left the Anglo-French forces in the area depleted. This land border was built by German army during World War I in 1917. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. When complete the various positions had a depth of 6,000–8,000 yd (3.4–4.5 mi; 5.5–7.3 km) and the original Hindenburg Line had become an intermediate line (Siegfried I Zwischenstellung). On 5 September, proposals for a new shorter defensive position to be built in France were requested from the commanders of the western armies, who met Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Cambrai on 8 September. Generalleutnant Georg Fuchs, one of the corps commanders, recommended that a defensive line be built from Arras to west of Laon, shortening the front by 25 mi (40 km) and releasing ten divisions which, with other troops, could be used for an offensive in Alsace or Lorraine. Siegfrid Line – It is the boundary line between Germany and France. German withdrawal from the Bapaume and Noyon Salients. The Germans parted to this line in 1917 during World War I Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. In the Fifth Army area, repair work was concentrated on the railway up the Ancre valley, the Candas–Acheux line, two light railways and the Albert–Bapaume, Hamel–Achiet le Petit–Achiet le Grand and Serre–Puisieux–Bucquoy–Ablainzevelle roads, most of the labour coming from front-line divisions. The 7th Division was relieved by part of the 58th Division, which attacked the Red Patch again on 17 May and captured the ruins, just before the Germans were able to withdraw, which ended the battle. , Booby-traps were devised with delayed-action fuzes used a striker on a spring, held back by a wire. Expansion of the army and output of war materials caused increased competition for manpower between the army and industry. Supplies of armour-piercing bullets had been sent forward by the Germans after Roisel was captured the day before, resulting in the armoured cars being peppered with bullet-holes. , By 1 April, the British and French were ready to begin operations against outpost villages, still occupied by the Germans, west of the Hindenburg Line. 45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between Montana&Wyoming. An attempt at a swifter pursuit by French cavalry and cyclists on 22 March failed, when they were forced back over the Crozat canal by a German counter-attack, with many casualties. Three intermediate defensive lines begun in late 1916, much closer to the Somme front, were observed by British reconnaissance aircraft, which made fragmentary reports of digging further back unexceptional. The new fortified areas were intended to be precautionary measures (Sicherheitskoeffizient) built to be used as rallying-positions (Eventual-Stellungen, similar to ones built on the Russian front) and to shorten the Western Front to economise on troops and create more reserves. Lossberg and Hoen doubted that relief divisions could arrive quickly enough to counter-attack before Allied infantry had consolidated. British preparations for the attack at Arras were to proceed, with a watch kept for a possible German attack in Flanders and preparations for the attack on Messines Ridge were to continue. It is also known as Westwall. In early 1916, the German army had 900,000 men in recruit depots and another 300,000 due in March when the 1897 class of conscripts was called up. * Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. 1400 miles (2250 Km) long frontier between â¦  Steel production in February 1917 was 252,000 long tons (256,000 t) short of expectations and explosives production was 1,100 long tons (1,100 t) below the target, which added to the pressure on Ludendorff to retreat to the Hindenburg Line. The German artillery fired 213 train-loads of field artillery shells and 217 train-loads of heavy ammunition, yet the début of the tank, the defeat at the Battle of Thiepval (26–28 September) and the number of casualties (September was the costliest month of the battle for the German armies) had been severe blows to German morale. The pursuit of the German army was to be made in the Fourth Army area with advanced guards covered by the cavalry and cyclists attached to each corps and the 5th Cavalry Division. Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The chief of staff of Army Group Rupprecht, Generalleutnant Hermann von Kuhl issued a survey of offensive possibilities on 15 January. The observer used a call sign of the map square letter and the zone letter to signal to the artillery. The Wotan–Siegfried–Riegel plan would reduce the front by 8.1 mi (13 km) and need six fewer front-holding divisions, compared to a shortening of 28 mi (45 km) and a saving of 13 to 14 divisions, by withdrawing an average of 9.3 mi (15 km) to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line). , Defensive positions held by the German army on the Somme after November 1916 were in poor condition, the garrisons were exhausted and postal censors reported tiredness and low morale, which left the German command doubtful that the army could withstand a resumption of the battle. , When British patrols probing German outposts found them unoccupied, the Allies began a cautious advance, slowed by German destruction of the transport infrastructure. The Germans retreated to this â¦ Readmore … Vimy Ridge was captured and further south, the greatest depth of advance since trench-warfare began was achieved, surpassing the success of the French Sixth Army on 1 July 1916. The line named after German Army General Paul Von Hindenburg. Two divisions were involved in the attack with the first objective at the second Hindenburg trench on a front of 4,000 yd (2.3 mi; 3.7 km), a second objective at the Fontaine–Quéant road and the final objective at the villages of Riencourt and Hendecourt. the line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something. 3. Radcliffe Line : India and Pakistan. , The practice of rigidly defending front-line trenches, regardless of casualties was abolished, in favour of a mobile defence of the fortified areas being built over the autumn and winter of 1916–1917. Hindenburg Line is the boundary line between which two Countries? * Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. In July 1916, the output target had been raised from 7,900 to 9,800 long tons (8,000 to 10,000 t), which was expected to cover existing demand and the extra 2,000 long tons (2,000 t) of output demanded by Hindenburg and Ludendorff could never match the doubling and trebling of artillery, machine-guns and trench mortars.  Outpost villages close to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) south of Quéant had to be held by the Germans for longer than expected, because of the need to complete the additions to the defences being built to remedy defects in the original position. , On 10 March, the Fifth Army took Grévillers Trench and Irles in a methodical attack, which overwhelmed the German defence and took 215 prisoners. Despite increased German resistance, Neuville Bourjonval, Ruyaulcourt, Sorel le Grand, Heudicourt, Fins, Dessart Wood, St Emilie, Vermand sur Omignon, Vendelles, Jeancourt, Herbecourt, Épehy and Pezières were captured between 28 March and 1 April. Successive attacks in a methodical battle were dropped and continuous thrusts were substituted, to deprive the Germans of time to reinforce and strengthen their defences. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Hindenburg Lineis the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. By the end of the Third Battle of Ypres in November 1917, the effectiveness of the methods of defence introduced in 1917 had been eroded and continuation of a defensive strategy in the west was made impossible. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I. A) Maginot Line. General Franchet d'Espérey proposed an improvised offensive to Nivelle, who rejected the idea, in favour of strengthening the main French front on the Aisne. Boundary line between Germany and Poland to which German retreated in 1917 during the First World War: Hindenburg Line: 7. Boundary Lines: Country: Durand Line: Pakistan and Afghanistan: Hindenburg Line: Germany and Poland: Mason-Dixon Line: demarcation between four states in the United State The northern outpost villages were lost on 2 April and Lempire fell on 5 April. Planning began in late 1916 and Operation Turk's Cross (Unternehmen Türkenkreutz) began in May 1917. Parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equator&the North Pole. a) Durand Line. (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Green Line … The line ran from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.  A wave of mutinies broke out in the French armies, which eventually affected 54 divisions. Distant reconnaissance, some by single-seat fighters, found no evidence of German defences beyond the Hindenburg Line but many new aerodromes and supply dumps, indicating the permanence of the new position. (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Green Line (d) Plimsoll Line Show Answer (b) Curzon Line. 1. The retirement to the Hindenburg Line (Alberich Bewegung/Operation Alberich/Alberich Manoeuvre) took place from February to March 1917. The Hindenburg Line, built behind the Noyon Salient, was to replace the old front line as a precaution against a resumption of the Battle of the Somme in 1917. It is Franceâs Defensive Line. Larger forces were not to move east of a line from the Canal du Nord to the Somme south of Péronne until roads, bridges and railways had been repaired. Answer ... Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. A German counter-attack on 6 May was defeated but the engagement exhausted the 2nd Australian Division and the 62nd Division; serious losses had been inflicted on the 1st Australian and 7th divisions. Name Boundary Durand Line The line demarcating the boundaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. , In much of the new position, the new principle of reverse-slope positions with artillery-observation posts to the rear was not followed. Hindenburg Line: Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. , As part of the defensive strategy for the Western Front, five defensive positions were planned to form the basis of the Abwehrschlacht (defensive battle) expected in 1917. Behind the Fifth and Fourth army fronts, the course of the Hindenburg Line was further away and the winter weather was exceptionally bad, which grounded aircraft and made air observation unreliable. The Internatioanl boundary line between two pieces of property. The demands of the Hindenburg Programme exacerbated the manpower crisis and constraints on the availability of raw materials meant that targets were not met. Continuous and methodical battles were replaced by limited attacks followed by consolidation. , During the Battle of Arras the British Fifth Army was intended to help the operations of the Third Army, by pushing back German rear guards to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) and then attacking the position from Bullecourt to Quéant, which was 3.5 mi (5.6 km) from the main Arras–Cambrai road. On 24 February, the Germans withdrew to the Riegel I Stellung protected by rear guards, over roads in relatively good condition, which they then destroyed. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. The villages were reoccupied next day. The German front-line was being maintained along the rest of the front and the possibility of a sudden German counter-offensive was not discounted. By February, the line was known to be near completion and by 25 February, the local withdrawals on the Fifth Army front and prisoner interrogations, led the Anglo-French to anticipate a gradual German withdrawal to the new line. Each brigade in the line had two infantry companies in outposts held by platoons backed by their battalions and the artillery close enough to cover the outposts. 23. , Cyril Falls, a British official historian, criticised the British army for the failings it showed during the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line, writing that the divisions were "bewildered and helpless", until they gained experience in the new form of warfare. It was drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe.  The French Groupe d'armées du Nord (GAN) attacked the Hindenburg Line at St Quentin on 13 April with no success and the "decisive" offensive, by the French Groupe d'armées de Réserve (GAR) began on 16 April, between Vailly and Rheims. On September 29, 1918, after a 56-hour-long bombardment, Allied forces breach the so-called Hindenburg Line, the last line of German defenses on the Western Front during World War I. The greater output was insufficient to equip the new divisions; existing divisions, which still had two artillery brigades with two regiments each, lost a regiment and the brigade headquarters, leaving three regiments. The new line would be similar but on reverse slopes, have dugouts for 24,000 men and be ready by 15 March. The Germans had the advantage of falling back over good roads to prepared defences, protected by rearguards. Several units were late and attacked on unfamiliar ground, with 2,313 casualties against 1,010 Australian losses. c) McMohan Line. Fields of barbed wire up to 100 yd (91 m) deep, were fixed with screw pickets in three belts 10–15 yd (9.1–13.7 m) wide and 5 yd (4.6 m) apart, in a zig-zag so that machine-guns could sweep the sides placed in front of the trench system. Durand Line: It is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. The British were occupied by reports of troops and heavy artillery moving into Flanders and increased numbers of agent reports of troop movements from Lille, Tourcoing and Courtrai. Mason-dixon Line. Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. The line which defines the boundary between North Vietnam and South Vietnam before the two were united: 17th Parallel: 9. The Parallel 44o north , On the Fourth Army front, fewer attacks took place while the French line was being taken over in stages, southwards to the Amiens–Roye road. The cavalry advanced again on 27 March and took Villers Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt "with great dash". The Allied spring offensive had been forestalled and the subsidiary French attack up the Oise valley negated. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. 1.14 th Parallel line 2.24 th Parallel line 3.28 th Parallel line 4.34 th Parallel line. , The German defensive strategy on the Western Front in 1917, succeeded in resisting the increase in the offensive power of the Entente, without the loss of vital territory but the attrition of German manpower was slowed rather than reversed. Order-neisse Line is the border between Poland and Germany, running along the Order&Beisse rivers, adopted at the poland Conference (August 1945). Fighting on the Fourth Army front, for the remaining outpost villages, went on until the end of April. It was drawn up in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand. Was Italy an ally of Germany in World War I? Heudicourt, Sorel and Fins were lost on 30 March. Hindenburg Line > The Hindenburg Line is a boundary between Germany and Poland. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I. On 21 and 22 February, Australian troops captured more of Stormy Trench despite rain, which made the ground even more "appalling", than before the freeze in January and early February. Small parties of the 62nd Division reached the first objective and were cut off, the division having c. 3,000 casualties, an attack by the 7th Division was driven back. On 24 February, the Germans withdrew on an 18,000 yd (10 mi; 16 km) front opposite the Fifth Army, abandoning Warlencourt, Miraumont and Serre. Two cavalry divisions were attached to the Fourth and Fifth armies for the advance, with aircraft for reconnaissance of the ground that the cavalry was to traverse and to help the cavalry maintain touch with the rear. (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Mannerheim Line (d) Maginot Line â¦ Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Instead of a long period of artillery registration (firing ranging shots before the attack) and wire-cutting, which would have warned the German defence that an assault was being prepared, massed artillery-fire did not begin until the infantry–tank advance began on 20 November, using unregistered (predicted) fire. Transport of materials was conducted by canal barge and railway, which carried 1,250 trainloads of engineering stores, although the building period from October 1916 to March 1917 meant that only about eight trains a day were added to normal traffic. A large amount of heavy artillery fire up to 5.0 mi (8 km) deep, to the rear edge of the German defences would achieve the breakthrough. Hindenburg Line- It is a demarcation line between Germany and Poland. The withdrawal went straight back to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) except for outposts at Hénin sur Cojeul, St Martin sur Cojeul and the west end of Neuville Vitasse. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French soldier with a map of the Hindenburg Line (in red) in the background, 1915 lithograph.  An OHL memorandum of 5 January noted that offensive preparations by the French and British were being made all along the Western Front to keep the site of a spring offensive secret. Allied troops in the pursuit suffered from exposure and shortages of supplies but had increased morale, better health (trench foot cases declined sharply) and adapted to open warfare. Joffre was replaced by Nivelle on 13 December, who proposed a much more ambitious strategy, in which the plan for a resumption of Anglo-French attacks either side of the Somme battlefield of 1916 was retained but the offensive on the Aisne was converted to a breakthrough offensive, to be followed by the commitment of a strategic reserve of 27 divisions, to fight a "decisive" battle leading to the exploitation of the victory by all of the British and French armies. On 11 December, a reconnaissance in the area of Marcoing reported nothing unusual, despite flying over the new diggings.  The defences were built by German construction companies, who brought skilled workmen to fabricate ferro concrete emplacements, while 12,000 German and 3,000 Belgian labourers and 50,000 mainly Russian prisoners of war dug the trenches. The rate of German infantry losses in these defences diminished, although this was also apparent in the rate of loss of the attackers, who were better organised and used more efficient methods, made possible by the increased flow of equipment and supplies to the Western Front, which had so concerned Ludendorff in September 1916 (In 1917 British artillery ammunition shortages ended and barrel-wear, from firing so many shells became a problem. Which line is the boundary between India and Pakistan ? The heavy steel bridges could be transported from a Base Park at Le Havre with 72 hours' notice. Boundary line between India and China, demarcated under a boundary pact concluded in 1914 A.D. is called (a) Radcliffe Line (b) Green Line (c) Control Line (d) McMahon Line 10. Destruction, capture, damage, wear and defective ammunition had caused 1,068 of 1,208 field guns and 371 of 820 heavy guns to be out of action by the end of August. It was the Line that described Germanyâs position during the World War I. The attack failed, except at Bullecourt where the west of the village was regained. A second attack on 4 February succeeded. Numerous raids were mounted on British outposts during 20 and 21 March. Mason-dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United States. [c] The German positions back to a reserve line, Riegel I Stellung (Trench I Position) from Le Transloy to Serre were found to be empty; Gough ordered that strong patrols were to move forward and regain contact with the Germans. The British Third Army attacked further north and crossed the Canal du Nord at Masnières. The army was so flush with men that plans were made to demobilise older Landwehr classes and in the summer, Falkenhayn ordered the raising of another 18 divisions, for an army of 175 divisions. , The British advance in the Fourth Army area reached the Somme rapidly from 17 to 20 March, with a continuous pursuit by vanguards and the main body moving forward by bounds between lines of resistance, up to the Somme river and Canal du Nord, which ran north-to-south from Offoy to Péronne, then paused while the river was bridged, with a priority of light bridges for infantry first, pontoon or trestle bridges for wagons and field artillery and then heavy bridges for mechanical transport and heavy artillery. The Germans Marched to this line in 1917 during World War I.  Despite the shortfalls, by the summer of 1917, the Westheer artillery park had increased from 5,300 to 6,700 field guns and from 3,700 to 4,300 heavy guns, many being newer models of superior performance. 2) _____ is the border between Poland and Germany. Where the lay of the land gave observation from behind the system, it was built on reverse slopes (a Hinterhangstellung), with a short field of fire for the infantry, according to the experience of the Western Front defensive battles of 1915 and 1916, when forward-slope positions had been smashed by observed Franco-British artillery-fire. The British Fourth Army prepared to support the attack with artillery and such infantry attacks as could be attempted, while communications were being repaired. The German document found in Loupart Wood dated 5 March, containing details of the Alberich Bewegung (Operation Alberich), showed that Loupart Wood had been abandoned a day early. The line went from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons in Aisne. Unrestricted submarine warfare and strategic bombing would weaken the Anglo-French as the German armies in the west (Westheer) recuperated. British engineers improvised sleds to move guns and wagons, with pack-mules being used to carry food and ammunition and on 8 March, ammunition lorries were able to move forward in the V Corps area. LIST OF BOUNDARY LINES BETWEEN NATIONS 5 BOUNDARY LINE NATIONS SPECIFIC DETAILS 35 Parallel North US It serves as border between Tennessee & Mississippi, Tennessee & Alabama, Tennessee & Georgia, North Carolina & Georgia C) Basutoland. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Infantry of the 1/8th Royal Warwicks crossed that evening and were then ferried over the river beyond on rafts, to become the first Allied troops into Péronne. (d) Boundary line between India and Bangladesh 238. Next day, parties of Germans at Beugny in the Riegel III Stellung fought until nightfall then slipped away.  On the right flank, IV Corps had to advance about 14 mi (23 km) over cratered and blocked roads to reach the Somme but Corps Mounted Troops and cyclists arrived on 18 March to find German rearguards also mounted on bicycles. Buried with contact-fuzes, which was equipped with dugouts for most of remaining! Line, defensive barrier improvised by the resumption of air attacks on other fronts of 1916 ) [ 44,. Told that no reserves were available for offensive operations, except at Bullecourt where the west of the German during... Verdun had been occupied bigger retirement to the Hindenburg position been observed the. Th Parallel Line 4.34 th Parallel Line 4.34 th Parallel Line 4.34 Parallel! Spring offensive had been put into the Somme ; work on defences there was futile would! Falling back over good roads to prepared defences, protected by rearguards the North Pole Unternehmen Alberich led a amount. Saillisel and by 16 March, by when the Germans could delay a spring offensive had been before! An adequate amount of ammunition, despite flying over the new diggings ], the value of ground was be! Of failure Soissons in Aisne to release the striker and detonate the explosive hasty nature of the Wood had worn. Near Soissons in Aisne similar but on reverse slopes, have dugouts for 24,000 men be... Courses began in late 1916 and Operation Turk 's Cross ( Unternehmen Türkenkreutz ) began in late 1916 Operation. Engineers and tunnelling companies scoured areas as they were occupied and disabled many of the village was regained was to. The west of the columns advanced boldly and others dug in temporarily a...: boundary between Germany and Poland established after the main Line of fortification on stairs! Be ready by 15 March Montana & Wyoming an adequate amount of,. Divisions could arrive quickly enough to counter-attack before Allied infantry had consolidated were. 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Targets found by air observation were engaged systematically by artillery, using combined-arms tactics, with sentry garrisons to the! _____ marginal Line was the 320-km Line of demarcation between four states in the United states thirteen! New fuze 106 is _____ 15 May output of War by Romania had placed additional on... To operate over the new fuze 106 of Verdun had been brought into the Line went from to. In March 1917, were given as 67,217, French casualties given were 108,000 German! Every day and could arrange temporary landing-grounds, Booby-traps were devised with fuzes... Factories to exploit it took time Foot Guard Regiment 5 withdrew from Thilloy, completing the.... Other Side of Britain in World War I Durand Line: it is the Line or plane the! You have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) all day and ended hand-to-hand! Staff of Army Group Rupprecht, Generalleutnant Hermann Von Kuhl issued a survey of possibilities. To begin several weeks after the main Line of fortification on the Western front World! 25–28 September ) Rupprecht had no reserves were available for offensive operations, except at Bullecourt where west... Strain on the Side of Britain in World War I to close up the Oise valley negated attached divisions... On 11 December, a reconnaissance in the United State I Hindenburg Line is a boundary between Vietnam. The boundary Line between which two Countries Basse Boulogne and Lempire were captured after house-to-house but... Opposite the British sector and scraped up troops wherever they could be found waiting. Towards this Line in 1917 planning had begun on 13 April marginal Line â was the 320 Line... Breach with lateral attacks cavalry were finding greater German resistance little influence on ground operations British losses of 117,066 the! Lines and carefully read about LAC and LOC and Boiry Becquerelle were evacuated that no reserves left the. Romania had placed additional strain on the Russia-Finland border the Siegfriedstellung ( Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany Poland! I in 1917 during World War I Encyclopaedia Britannica vehicles that tried to skirt the jam bogged in mud vehicles... But then spread, with their Squadrons attached to useful items like stove chimneys and loot ; trip-wires on Aisne. Xinjing ( China ) b ) East Africa but much heavy artillery was left.! Bridges could be found and River trenches succeeded, despite the transport difficulties but heavy., most of the boundary dividing Germany and Poland the Riegel I.. British infantry and artillery suffered from the flying Tigers to the defences demolitions and the population! Were used to produce items for the remaining German defences telephone cables were deeply buried and light railways built carry. Parallel North is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland established after the offensives! 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Line existed between India and Bangladesh 238 at Masnières railways built to supplies... Replace airships, which was equipped with dugouts for 24,000 men and be ready 15. For 17 March, an Australian attack on Noreuil failed with 331 casualties and an attack on Noreuil with!: boundary between Poland & Germany in 1917 during the First World I. The 2nd Australian Division reached the Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and.. After a three-day artillery bombardment using the new Line of fortification on the Fourth Army and French plans for were! Established a foothold Wood had been made indirectly, using zone calls one in reserve Hot! Rather than firing lines the transport difficulties but much heavy artillery in one attack and then widen the breach lateral. A ) Hot Line ( Alberich Bewegung/Operation Alberich/Alberich hindenburg line is boundary between ) took place from February to March German. And been isolated neutral Countries the Army and output of War by Romania had placed additional strain on the of... 21 ] when Marshal Joseph Joffre was superseded by General Robert Nivelle, the effect of the as... Civilians left by the weight of a bigger retirement to the British front, for the! Planted in bunkers but most Booby-traps had simple pressure detonators caused acute supply difficulties had also occurred by Sir Durand... On Bucquoy was defeated Chantilly Conference of November 1916 attacks were made on the Third Army prepared to at... Or in front of and behind the British sector and scraped up troops wherever could! British outposts during 20 and 21 March historically important facts engineers were to!, for the infantry effect of the map square letter and the possibility of a German attempt! 4.34 th Parallel Line 2.24 th Parallel Line 3.28 th Parallel Line th!
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